terminal komande-terminal commands


adduser  Add a user to the system
addgroup Add a group to the system
alias Create an alias •
apropos  Search Help manual pages (man -k)

apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aspell Spell Checker
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames

bash     GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg Send to background
break Exit from a loop •

builtin Run a shell builtin
bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)
cal Display a calendar

case Conditionally perform a command
cat Display the contents of a file
cd Change Directory

cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
chmod Change access permissions

chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
chkconfig System services (runlevel)

cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear    Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
comm Compare two sorted files line by line

command Run a command – ignoring shell functions •
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop •
cp Copy one or more files to another location

cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces

cut Divide a file into several parts
date Display or change the date & time
dc Desk Calculator

dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes •

df Display free disk space
diff Display the differences between two files
diff3 Show differences among three files

dig DNS lookup
dir Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for `ls’

dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs Display list of remembered directories
dmesg Print kernel & driver messages

du Estimate file space usage
echo Display message on screen •
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression

eject Eject removable media
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands •
env Environment variables

ethtool  Ethernet card settings
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec Execute a command
exit Exit the shell

expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable

expr Evaluate expressions
false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk

fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
fg Send job to foreground
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string

file     Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt Reformat paragraph text

fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words, and execute commands
format   Format disks or tapes

free     Display memory usage
fsck File system consistency check and repair
ftp      File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros

fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters

grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
help     Display help for a built-in command •

history Command History
hostname Print or set system name
iconv Convert the character set of a file

id Print user and group id’s
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface

ifdown Stop a network interface
ifup Start a network interface up
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file

install Copy files and set attributes
jobs List active jobs •
join Join lines on a common field

kill Stop a process from running
killall Kill processes by name
less Display output one screen at a time

let Perform arithmetic on shell variables •
ln Make links between files
local Create variables •

locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell •

look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print

lprint   Print a file
lprintd  Abort a print job
lprintq  List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)

lsof List open files
make     Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)

mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs  Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod Make block or character special files

more Display output one screen at a time
mount Mount a file system
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files

mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mv Move or rename files or directories
mmv Mass Move and rename (files)

netstat  Networking information
nice Set the priority of a command or job
nl Number lines and write files

nohup Run a command immune to hangups
notify-send Send desktop notifications
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

open Open a file in its default application
op Operator access
passwd Modify a user password

paste Merge lines of files
pathchk  Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Stop processes from running

popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database

printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data •
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory

pwd Print Working Directory
quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage

quotactl Set disk quotas
ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines

read Read a line from standard input •
readarray Read from stdin into an array variable •
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly

reboot   Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice   Alter priority of running processes
remsync  Synchronize remote files via email
return Exit a shell function

rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)

rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)

sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input

seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp     Secure File Transfer Program

shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux

sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files

source Run commands from a file `.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)

strace   Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file

suspend Suspend execution of this shell •
symlink Make a new name for a file
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

tail Output the last part of files
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files

test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times

touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host

trap     Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully

tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command •

ulimit Limit user resources •
umask Users file creation mask
umount   Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias •

uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files

units Convert units from one scale to another
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts

until Execute commands (until error)
useradd Create new user account
usermod Modify user account

users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

v        Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir     Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics

watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program

which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in

whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
Wget     Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user

xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application.

yes Print a string until interrupted
. Run a command script in the current shell
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