–Drug abuse as a form of chemical dependency include compulsive use of means which causes drug addiction and is characterized by:
– An irresistible desire for the continuation of taking drugs – psychoactive substances (ie substances that alter consciousness, mood and behavior) of natural or synthetic origin;
– Long drug use leads to increased tolerance, and increases the amount of drug to achieve an appropriate pharmaco-dynamic and psychological effects;
– Psychological or physical dependence, or both of the other;
– Withdrawal syndrome after discontinuation of drugs;
– Consequences for the individual and society.
Curiosity, frustration and youthful rebellion against the world “, the desire for acceptance in a society that impresses them, insecurity and lack of confidence – just some of the hundreds of reasons why young people begin experimenting with drugs.
– Parents, in the eternal race to secure family “normal” life, can be found in a situation that does not react in time. Sometimes, parents who think they are doing “the best” facing a wall and the terrible knowledge that their children are gambling with the future and life.
Therefore, you should find time to talk, you should know your child. Just as children learn to solve other problems in life and situations, and should not ignore either the drug. The young man must learn what it really danger threatens. Family happiness, and life may be the price which pays neglect and thought, “My child does not take drugs, to make some other kids.”
Parents, as a rule, late notice that their child is addicted to drugs. Children using drugs for several years and their parents to learn, say, only in the last two months. Apart from being busy and preoccupied with the struggle to ensure the existence, most parents are “blind to the behavior on their children.” Furthermore, parents usually deny the changes in child behavior.
Time of starting consumption of psychoactive substances on the average moved up to about 15 years. Even with all the young and young adolescents, in children of 12, 13 or 14 years establishing the addiction or drug abuse. Given that adolescents do not yet have organized their own personality, they want to identify with their peers, to become part of the tribe which does not want to stand out in any way.
There is a huge desire to prove oneself, huge curiosity of adolescents.
Teens only determines the limits of their capabilities. He does not know how far he can run, how can love, how can you submit to the pain. One of their important features is omnipotence. They think they can achieve anything they want, they can overcome all obstacles.
They are not aware that the dependence is established quickly and that coming from it is very difficult. As Nathaniel Emmons said:
– “The habit is that the best servant, and the worst master.” Habit (habituation) in the current literature classifies the psychological (emotional) dependence.
Psychological dependence on the altered state of the organism in which a person feels a strong need for constant drug use in order to maintain a sense of good mental state and satisfaction. Mainly caused by psychological dependence on cocaine, cannabis and some hallucinogens. Other (opiates, amphetamines, some tranquilizers, etc..) Cause mental and physical dependence, and independent physical addiction is very rare.
Physical dependence is a result of tissue or cellular adaptation to the drug. Drugs became a part of impaired drug metabolism in an emergency stopping drug use leads to abstinence (psychoorganic) syndrome. He expressed desire, and obtained values vegetative syndrome symptoms, in rare cases, seizures and psychotic phenomena.
Tolerance to drugs is a condition in which the body comes after long-term use of the asset while maintaining the good functioning of the need to increase the dose. For funds that have similar properties and method of action appears combined (cross-) tolerance.
The spread of drug abuse can be interpreted in several ways. Consequence of the expansion and strengthening of international crime with an increase in production and supply, changing the quality of life and increasing demands that modern society puts before men.
Drug abuse is present in all age groups, but it is still the highest risk age – adolescent age. “Culprits” for the new ways of entertainment, trends, positive attitudes towards drugs, materialistic philosophy, hedonistic orientation toward life, pliable nature of adolescence and so on.
– A sense of inferiority and lack of self-esteem, poor social conditions in the family, lack of parental attention and love contribute to the likelihood that adolescents will resort to drugs.
Psychodynamic factors and causes of drug addiction
Important etiological (causal) factor in the development of drug addiction is a personality disorder. Difficulty adapting differently conditioned. Psychodynamic schools in particular studying pathogenetic factors that influence the company stated that personality disorders are factors of interpersonal competition, evaluation of the weaker and stronger, the reason for creating a psychological tension and fear as its consequences.
– The fear of wearing out the energy and personality led to difficulty adjusting. Defense against this fear, consciously or unconsciously embedded in the figure, among other things can be and drug abuse.
Thus, from the psychological point of view, drug addiction is a symptom, not a separate entity. From the social point of view, however, it should be classified as special sick reaction, since its asocial specific consequences.
While for example. large number of neurotics manages to retain a productive position in society, drug In most cases become antisocial, especially passivity towards the duties which the society sets as required (education, work, marriage, etc.)..
Drug abuse is most prevalent in sociopatskih personality and character neuroses. When drug addicts, the main frames are filled with the loss of personal interest to the broader and narrower environment, reducing productivity, flexibility gradual decrease of psychic energy.
Interestingly, the gathering of drug addicts. Those in your group are reluctant to accept people who do not enjoy drugs. This gathering, according to some authors, does not originate only from caution to the authorities, but also from the fact of interpersonal relationships junkies have their own special features.
– Because of them, the entry of others endangers the homogeneous environment of their own group, so pleasant drug addicts. Separation conditions and drug company, because from a sociological point of view is considered antisocial and less valuable.
Categories of consumers
People who take drugs can be conditionally divided into two groups: the first are called.“Successful consumers” who use drugs in order to stimulate and calm, and serve them as an aid in the pursuit of materialistic goals of modern society (career and earning money). The second group consists of those who flee from reality because they think they are incapable of life, failed and under-respected.
Data on the number of addicts must be taken with caution because the data can only indirectly, through registered addicts in medical institutions, through the deaths caused by overdose or by registered criminal activity.